The index of Nighttime Offline Distress (iNOD)

3,008 adolescents aged 10–18 years were surveyed to develop a new self-reporting index to measure the difficulty of disengaging from social media at night. The index of Nighttime Offline Distress (iNOD) showed that youth with higher scores on the index reported using social media after they felt they should be asleep and experienced shorter sleep duration and poorer sleep quality. Results show a struggle to disconnect and stay disconnected from social interactions to allow sufficient uninterrupted sleep. In essence, iNOD shows the trade-offs young people make between social connections and sleep. 

Scott H, Biello SM, Cleland Woods H. Nodding off but can’t disconnect: Development and validation of the iNOD index of Nighttime Offline Distress, Sleep Medicine, Volume 81 (2021)


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